The single black hole problem. Figure 1 is an example of single black hole attack in the mobile ad hoc networks . Node 1 stands for the source node and node 4 represents the destination node. Node 3 is a misbehavior node who replies the RREQ packet sent from source node, and makes a false response that it has the quickest route to the destination node. Therefore node 1 erroneously judges the route discovery process with completion, and starts to send data packets to node 3. In the mobile ad hoc networks, a malicious node probably drops or consumes the packets. This suspicious node can be regarded as a black hole problem in MANETs. As a result, node 3 is able to misroute the packets easily, and the network operation is suffered from this problem.
Tseng et al. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences 2011 1:4 doi:10.1186/2192-1962-1-4